November — 2010 — The Expansion Joints Blog

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Archive for November, 2010

Two-ply Testable Bellows

November 29th, 2010 Comments off

U.S. Bellows designs two-ply bellows with 100% redundancy; therefore, if a leak occurs in the inner ply, the outer ply is designed for the full pressure and temperature. This design allows for the critical piping system to continue operating while plans for replacement can be formulated. This can prevent unexpected shut-downs saving valuable time and money.

Two-ply bellows also make it possible to pressure test and inspect for leaks during field inspections and in some cases if conditions permit, the expansion joint can be tested while in service. Universal, hinged and gimbal are some of the common types of expansion joints that include two-ply bellows. Sometimes a wire mesh is used between the bellows to ensure flow equalization between the plies of the bellows.

Most expansion joints in oil refineries, especially FCC units use two-ply bellows, but they are also ideal for regenerated catalyst standpipe, spent catalyst standpipe, recirculation cooled catalyst flue gas piping and hot gas expanded piping. Contact our team to have your single bellows expansion joint refurbished to include two-ply bellows.

44" Hinged Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining  and Two-ply Bellows

44″ Hinged Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining  and Two-ply Bellows

- Designed with two-ply Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, 5″ thick refractory-lining and 2″ thick attachment rings for part of a reactor piping system in a synfuels plant
- Pneumatically tested between the bellows plies and the complete expansion joint
- Thermal and structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed for the bellows operating temperature

- Designed with two-ply Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, 5″ thick refractory-lining and 2″ thick attachment rings for part of a reactor piping system in a synfuels plant- Pneumatically tested between the bellows plies and the complete expansion joint- Thermal and structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed for the bellows operating temperature

55" Refractory-lined Universal Gimbal Expansion Joint  with Two-ply Bellows55″ Refractory-lined Universal Gimbal Expansion Joint  with Two-ply Bellows

- Designed for a spent catalyst standpipe in a FCC unit & includes slotted hinges

- 163″ O.A.L and 60 PSIG at 1020°F, A516 GR 70 pipe and two Inconel® 625 LCF two-ply bellows

- 100% dye penetrant tested, 100% x-ray tested, pressure tested, pneumatic and vacuum tested between the bellows plies and the complete expansion joint

44" Universal Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining  and Two-ply Bellows44″ Universal Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining  and Two-ply Bellows

- Designed for a chemical plant in Venezuela

- 44″ diameter and 100 PSIG at 1000°F

- 321 SS two-ply testable bellows, A-387 GR 11 weld ends, 5″ vibra cast and 1″ abrasion resistant refractory

- Pneumatically tested between the bellows plies and the complete expansion joint

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66" Diameter Tied Universal Expansion Joint for Pipe Carrying Sulfur Dioxide of Temperatures up to 1022ºF

November 22nd, 2010 Comments off

66" Diameter Tied Universal Expansion Joint for Pipe Carrying Sulfur Dioxide of Temperatures up to 1022ºF

This tied universal expansion joint is designed to carry hot gas up to temperatures of 1022ºF and pressure up to 5 PSIG. It has a 66″ inside diameter and is 126″ in overall length. The design movements are 3″ lateral and 4.5″ axial compression. The bellows material is Inconel® 825 with 316 L SS flow liners, carbon steel weld ends and limit rods. The bellows and pipe longitudinal weld seams were 100% water clear x-rayed and dye-penetrant tested prior to a 5 PSIG air test. All exterier surface of carbon steel pipes are high heat aluminum painted.

24/7 Quick Turn Emergency Service for Expansion Joints

November 15th, 2010 Comments off

U.S. Bellows has extensive experience in providing quick turn emergency services during unexpected shut-downs and planned turnarounds. We provide expansion joint on-site services, installation supervision, inspection, problem resolution, repair, refurbishment and replacement.

U.S. Bellows has a system of stock bellows and an “on-call” engineering and manufacturing team to meet any of your quick turn and emergency requirements.

For the quickest response, use our online emergency form. We guarantee a response to your request within 30 minutes.

54" Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint Refurbished with a Quick Turn Around

54″ Pressure Balanced Elbow Turbine Crossover Expansion Joint Refurbished with a Quick Turn Around

U.S. Bellows, Inc. refurbished two pressure balanced elbow expansion joints with a quick turnaround for a power generation plant during outages. They are designed for high pressure turbine crossover piping. The first 54″ outside diameter expansion joint leaked from a crack in the bellows causing an unscheduled outage. View the full article ——————————————————————————————————

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60" Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint with Turning Vanes for a Power Plant in Washington

November 9th, 2010 Comments off

60" Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint with Turning Vanes for a Power Plant in Washington

The existing pressure balanced elbow expansion joint with liners was re-designed with turning vanes to eliminate the vibration impact on the bellows. U.S. Bellows performed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to determine the design of the turning vanes.

Flow Path Comparison

Flow Path Comparison

The turning vanes redirect the flow stream, which creates a smoother flow, thus eliminating the flow induced vibration. The bellows and liner were fabricated from 321 stainless steel and the rest is fabricated from carbon steel. An air and soap test was performed prior to shipping it to a power plant in Washington.

Types of Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

November 2nd, 2010 Comments off

Depending on the temperature, pressure, movement and flow media conditions, refractory-lined expansion joints can be hinged, in-line pressure balanced, gimbal, tied-universal and can also include pantographic linkage. For hot applications (up to 1400°F), the bellows is packed with Kaowool and lined with insulating refractory.

The refractory-lining allows for the use of carbon steel pipe instead of 300 series stainless steel. It can reduce the pipe wall temperature to between 300-450°F and also protect the bellows from abrasion caused by the flow of abrasive particles. Refractory-lined expansion joints are used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU), furnaces, hot gas turbines, styrene plants, fluidized bed boilers, kilns, power recovery trains and thermal oxidizers.

Refractory-lined expansion joints are custom designed for each application due to the extreme environments. U.S. Bellows is an experienced manufacturer of refractory-lined expansion joints. View some of our recent projects:

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Far-Left) 30″ Spent Catalyst Standpipe Expansion Joint with Abrasion Resistant Refractory & Pantographic Linkage - Design temp: 1050°F, design pressure: 19 PSIG, linkage designed to distribute axial compression between the two bellows

(Middle) 63″ In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining for a Clean Fuels Project - Design temp: 1200°F, design pressure: 15 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel shell

(Far-Right) 48″ Expansion Joint with 4″ Thick Refractory-lining - Design temp: 1450°F, design pressure: 60 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel weld ends, hinges and pantographic linkage

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Left) 80″ Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining and Inconel 625 LCF Bellows Packed with Kaowool - Design temp: 1450°F, design pressure: 58 PSIG, A516 GR 70 carbon steel tie rods and slotted hinges, 309 stainless steel liner seals

(Right) 55″ Universal Gimbal Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining and Slotted Hinges for a Refinery in Joliet - Design temp: 1020°F, design pressure: 60 PSIG, A516 GR 70 carbon steel pipe, Inconel® 625 LCF two-ply bellows and slotted hinge

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Left) Hinged Single and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory-lining - 31″, 27″ and 25″ diameter, design temp: 1400°F, design pressure: 75.4 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel pipe

(Right) Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint with Refractory Lining and Cor-ten Flanges for a FCC Duct - 65″ x 81″ x 41-1/2″, design temp: 1400°F, design pressure: 5 PSIG, lined with both vibra cast and abrasion resistant refractory, 321 stainless steel bellows

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Left) 60″ Tied Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory-lining for a Carbon Monoxide Ducting System - Design pressure: 2 PSIG, lined with 3/4″ thick abrasion resistant refractory in hex mesh, A240 TP 304 SS bellows and flanges and A240 TP 310 SS pipe

(Right) 70″ Tied Universal Expansion Joint with 4″ Refractory-lining and Inconel 625 LCF Bellows for a FCC Unit - Design temp: 1400°F, design pressure: 51 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel, weld ends and spool

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