Refractory-Lined Expansion Joints — The Expansion Joints Blog

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Universal Expansion Joint with 5″ Thick Refractory Lining for a Styrene Plant in Thailand

May 23rd, 2011 Comments off

universal expansion joint with 5" thick refractory lining


universal expansion joint with 5" thick refractory lining

This universal expansion joint is designed with 5″ thick refractory-lining for a 52″ pipe in a Styrene Plant in Thailand. It measures 154″ long and is fabricated with ASTMA 304H stainless steel pipe ends and Incoloy 800H bellows. The expansion joint is designed for a lateral movement of 6.982″ with a design pressure of 30 psig at 1085°F. The bellows and pipe longitudinal seams and the pipe circumferential welds were x-rayed. All welds were also dye penetrant examined. A pneumatic test between the plies at 15 psig and the complete expansion joint at 45 psig was performed. The carbon steel surfaces were coated with a special three-coat paint system after testing and prior to shipment.

 

 

 

What’s in a Refractory-lined Expansion Joint?

February 22nd, 2011 Comments off

U.S. Bellows created a model cut-out section of a refractory-lined FCCU expansion joint for flue gas or catalysts service. U.S. Bellows can bring this model to your facility for a lunch and learn: contact our team for assistance.

model cut-out section of a refractory-lined FCCU expansion joint for flue gas or catalysts service

  1. Pressure Gauge – to monitor the pressure between the plies
  2. Inconel 625 LCF Two-ply Testable Bellows with Wire Mesh between the Plies – the wire mesh ensures flow from one side to the other side across the convolutions
  3. Carbon Steel Cover – pressure sealing in the even of bellows leak
  4. Control Rods – limits thermal movement
  5. 304 Stainless Steel Test Port / Valve – connection for air test of bellows
  6. Fire Blanket / Kaowool – keeps the bellows temperature above the dew point temperature of the flue gas (350°F to 450°F)
  7. Carbon Steel Lifting Lug – facilitates lifting
  8. Carbon Steel Shell
  9. 5″ Thick Vibra Cast Refractory – reduces shell temperature to 350°F
  10. 3/8″ Thick 304 Stainless Steel Liner with 3/4″ Thick Abrasion Resistant Refractory
  11. Ceramic Fiber Bellows Packing – reduces bellows temperature to under 1000°F
  12. 309 Stainless Steel Hose Braid Packed with Ceramic Fiber – seals the liner gap to prevent the catalyst from collecting in the bellows
  13. 304 H Stainless Steel – insulation box
  14. 304 H Stainless Steel Refractory V Anchors – secures refractory to pipe

Examples of Common Types of Expansion Joints

January 26th, 2011 Comments off

Single tied expansion joint fabricated entirely of stainless steel for a pipeline in Alaska.Single Tied Expansion Joints for a Pipeline in Alaska

The expansion joint assemblies are fabricated entirely from stainless steel with a design pressure of 50 PSIG. They are designed with tie rods that do not permit axial movement, but allow for lateral movement up to 1/2″. The expansion joints will be used on a process line that contains exhaust gas and hydrocarbon vapor at a low concentration. It will connect an oil tank with a vapor control system.

View Information on Single Expansion Joints

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Universal metallic expansion joint with 300 lb. raised face stainless steel flanges.Universal Metallic Expansion Joints with 300 lb. Raised Face Stainless Steel Flanges

The expansion joint assemblies are fabricated for a 12″ pipe and are designed for 2-1/2″ lateral movement. The design pressure is 276 PSIG with a design temperature of 626°F. 316L stainless steel was used for the bellows and tie rods. The expansion joints include 300 lb. raised face stainless steel flanges to accommodate low spring rate requirements.

View Information on Universal Expansion Joints

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Hinged expansion joints with refractory lining.Hinged Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinges cause the unit to bend in a single plane. The hinge mechanism is designed to accept the full pressure thrust.

  • Design Pressure: 75.4 PSIG
  • Design Temperature: 1400°F
  • 100% X-ray Tested
  • Pneumatically Tested weld seams to 83 PSIG

View Information on Hinged Expansion Joints

View Information on Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

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Elbow pressure balanced expansion joints fabricated for a 36" pipe.Elbow Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints

The expansion joints are fabricated for a 36″ pipe and are designed with Inconel® 625 grade LCF bellows. They include a liner provided with drain holes to prevent accumulation of corrosive condensation.

View Information on Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints

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Inline pressure balanced expansion joints designed to balance 48,000 lb. of pressure thrust.Inline Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints

- Design: 125 PSIG, Temperature: 244°F

- 304 SS Bellows, Flanges & Liners

- Designed to Balance 48,000 lb. of Pressure Thrust

View Information on Inline Pressure Balanced Joints

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Externally Pressurized Expansion JointsExternally Pressurized Expansion Joints

These expansion joints are fabricated for a piping system in a steam plant. They include 304 SS bellows and carbon steel shell and flanges, and are designed for 150 PSIG and 350°F.

View Information on Externally Pressurized Joints

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Gimbal expansion joint with floating rings designed for a 55" diameter overhead vapor line at a refinery.

Gimbal Expansion Joint with Floating Rings

These expansion joints are designed for a 55″ diameter overhead vapor line at a refinery. The overall length is 310″ and the bellows are fabricated from 625 LCF. The expansion joint is designed for 50 PSIG and 1075°F.

View Information on Gimbal Expansion Joints

Types of Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

November 2nd, 2010 Comments off

Depending on the temperature, pressure, movement and flow media conditions, refractory-lined expansion joints can be hinged, in-line pressure balanced, gimbal, tied-universal and can also include pantographic linkage. For hot applications (up to 1400°F), the bellows is packed with Kaowool and lined with insulating refractory.

The refractory-lining allows for the use of carbon steel pipe instead of 300 series stainless steel. It can reduce the pipe wall temperature to between 300-450°F and also protect the bellows from abrasion caused by the flow of abrasive particles. Refractory-lined expansion joints are used in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU), furnaces, hot gas turbines, styrene plants, fluidized bed boilers, kilns, power recovery trains and thermal oxidizers.

Refractory-lined expansion joints are custom designed for each application due to the extreme environments. U.S. Bellows is an experienced manufacturer of refractory-lined expansion joints. View some of our recent projects:

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Far-Left) 30″ Spent Catalyst Standpipe Expansion Joint with Abrasion Resistant Refractory & Pantographic Linkage - Design temp: 1050°F, design pressure: 19 PSIG, linkage designed to distribute axial compression between the two bellows

(Middle) 63″ In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining for a Clean Fuels Project - Design temp: 1200°F, design pressure: 15 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel shell

(Far-Right) 48″ Expansion Joint with 4″ Thick Refractory-lining - Design temp: 1450°F, design pressure: 60 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel weld ends, hinges and pantographic linkage

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Left) 80″ Tied Universal Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining and Inconel 625 LCF Bellows Packed with Kaowool - Design temp: 1450°F, design pressure: 58 PSIG, A516 GR 70 carbon steel tie rods and slotted hinges, 309 stainless steel liner seals

(Right) 55″ Universal Gimbal Expansion Joint with Refractory-lining and Slotted Hinges for a Refinery in Joliet - Design temp: 1020°F, design pressure: 60 PSIG, A516 GR 70 carbon steel pipe, Inconel® 625 LCF two-ply bellows and slotted hinge

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Left) Hinged Single and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory-lining - 31″, 27″ and 25″ diameter, design temp: 1400°F, design pressure: 75.4 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel pipe

(Right) Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint with Refractory Lining and Cor-ten Flanges for a FCC Duct - 65″ x 81″ x 41-1/2″, design temp: 1400°F, design pressure: 5 PSIG, lined with both vibra cast and abrasion resistant refractory, 321 stainless steel bellows

Refractory-lined Expansion Joints

(Left) 60″ Tied Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory-lining for a Carbon Monoxide Ducting System - Design pressure: 2 PSIG, lined with 3/4″ thick abrasion resistant refractory in hex mesh, A240 TP 304 SS bellows and flanges and A240 TP 310 SS pipe

(Right) 70″ Tied Universal Expansion Joint with 4″ Refractory-lining and Inconel 625 LCF Bellows for a FCC Unit - Design temp: 1400°F, design pressure: 51 PSIG, Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, A516 GR 70 carbon steel, weld ends and spool

Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint with Cor-ten Flanges and Refractory Lining for a FCC Duct

September 21st, 2010 Comments off

Rectangular Metallic Expansion Joint with Cor-ten Flanges and Refractory Lining for a FCC Duct

This rectangular metallic expansion joint is fabricated with 321 stainless steel bellows and Cor-ten flanges. The inside of this unit is lined with both vibra cast and abrasion resistance refractory. The dimensions are 65″ x 81″ x 41-1/2″ overall length and the assembly weighs 3,900 lb. All welds are 100% dye penetrant examined and the design conditions are 1400°F with 5 PSIG.

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

March 28th, 2007 Comments off
Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

U.S. Bellows, Inc. designed and fabricated refractory lined single-hinged and universal expansion joints for a design pressure of 75.4 PSIG and 1400°F temperature. Each expansion joint was 100% x-ray tested along the weld seams and pneumatically tested to 83 PSIG.

Hinged and Universal Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining

Refractory Lining

80” Refractory Lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint

February 18th, 2005 Comments off
80” Refractory Lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint

80" Refractory Lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint

80” Refractory Lined Tied Universal Expansion Joint

Tied Universal Expansion Joint During Fabrication

This 36’-0″ long refractory lined tied universal expansion joint weighs 54,000 lb. and has two-ply Inconel® 625 LCF bellows, tie rods, slotted hinges, insulation bags and liner seals. It is designed to operate at 58 PSIG and temperatures up to 1,450° F. The expansion joint was preset for 6” lateral travel and is capable of lateral travel up to 13”.

60" Diameter Tied Refractory Lined Universal Expansion Joints for a Chemical Refinery in Texas

June 11th, 2004 Comments off
60" diameter Tied Refractory Lined Universal Expansion Joints for a Chemical Refinery in TX

60" diameter Tied Refractory Lined Universal Expansion Joints for a Chemical Refinery in TX

U.S. Bellows, Inc. recently fabricated 60 dia. refractory lined universal expansion joints for a carbon monoxide ducting system at a chemical refinery.  The expansion joints are lined with a 3/4″ thick abrasion resistant refractory lining with hexagonal mesh reinforced anchor. A240 TP 304 material was used to fabricate the bellows and flanges and A240 TP 310 material was used for the spool. Designed for 2 PSIG, the joints were air tested at 5 PSIG to ensure quality performance. A dye-penetrant test was also implemented on the bellows’ long seam and attachment welds. These expansion joints were fabricated and designed per B31.3 and EJMA standards.

55" O.D. Refractory Lined Universal Gimbal Expansion Joints with slotted hinges for a refinery in Joliet

January 30th, 2004 Comments off
286" O.A.L. Expansion Joint Designed for the Regenerator Stand Pipe

286" O.A.L. Expansion Joint Designed for the Regenerator Stand Pipe

163" O.A.L Expansion Joint Designed for the Reactor Stand Pipe

163" O.A.L Expansion Joint Designed for the Reactor Stand Pipe

U.S. Bellows, Inc. specially designed and manufactured two 55″ O.D. refractory lined universal gimbal expansion joints for a refinery in Joliet. These expansion joints are equipped with slotted hinges with an overall length of 163″ and 286″ respectively.  The 163″ O.A.L. expansion joint, designed for 60 PSIG and 1020°F, will be used at the reactor stand pipe of the refinery. The 286″ O.A.L. expansion joint will be used for the regenerator stand pipe of the refinery and it is designed for 57 PSIG and 1300°F. Both expansion joints consist of a A516 Gr70 pipe, two SB-443 two-ply bellows and a slotted hinge.

To ensure quality, 100% dye-penetration, 100% x-ray and pressure tests were performed on the bellows. Pneumatic and vacuum tests were also conducted on the expansion joints and between bellows dry plies prior to shipping.

48” diameter Refractory Lined Expansion Joint for a Chemical Plant in Ecuador

October 10th, 2003 Comments off
48” dia. Refractory Lined Expansion Joint for a Chemical Plant in Ecuador

48” dia. Refractory Lined Expansion Joint for a Chemical Plant in Ecuador

U.S. Bellows, Inc. designed and fabricated a Refractory Lined Expansion Joint with pentographic linkages for a chemical plant in Ecuador. This expansion joint was designed for 60 PSIG and 1450 °F with a 4” thick refractory installed per UOP specifications. The bellows was constructed from SB-443 Inconel® 625, and the weld ends, hinges, pantographic linkages, and floating ring were made from A516-70.

The bellows, weld ends, and spool long seam welds were 100% X-rayed and 100% dye-penetrant tested per ASME standards. A pneumatic test was performed at 15 PSIG for the entire expansion joint assembly prior to shipping.

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