U.S. Bellows custom designed two 42″ tied universal expansion joints, a 42″ hinged expansion joint and a 62″ fabric expansion joint in ductwork for an acid plant in Louisiana. The assemblies had flanged and flued head bellows fabricated from 304H stainless steel. The rest of the assemblies were made from carbon steel with operating temperatures of 700°F at 10 psig. The expansion joints were dye penetrant and x-ray tested prior to shipment.
U.S. Bellows designed a 102″ dia. single hinged expansion joint and duct work assembly, along with two 92″ single expansion joints for a coal gasification facility in Mississippi. Both the assembly and expansion joints were fabricated from carbon steel with 304 stainless steel bellows, and designed for 3.6° angular movement at 825°F and 3 psig. The expansion joints were dye penetrant examined, 100% x-rayed and soap and air tested prior to shipment.
U.S. Bellows, Inc. designed a double hinged reinforced expansion joint for a 92″ diameter pipe in a water treatment plant located in Canada. The bellows, root rings and collars are fabricated from 321 stainless steel. The weld ends and hinge hardware are fabricated from carbon steel. This expansion joint was designed for 100 PSIG at 300°F with 4° angular movement for each bellows. The bellows long seams and longitudinal pipe welds were 100% x-ray examined, and a hydro-test at 150 PSIG, along with a 100% dye penetrant test for all welds was performed prior to shipment.
This single hinged expansion joint is designed for sulphur dioxide service in a sulphuric acid plant. It was fabricated with 321 stainless steel bellows and liner, and A-516 GR 70 carbon steel hinge plates and pipe. The pipe is 66″ outside diameter and 35-1/4″ overall length. The expansion joint was designed for 6° angular and 3 PSIG at 680°F. The bellows and pipe long seams were 100% x-rayed, and all the welds were 100% dye penetrant tested. A soap and air test at 15 PSIG was conducted prior to shipment.
Hinges permit angular rotation in one plane only by the use of a pair of pins through hinge plates attached to the expansion joint ends. Hinges and hinge pins are designed to restrain the thrust of the expansion joint due to internal pressure. Hinges can also be designed to carry piping loads, if specified.
Features of hinged expansion joints include:
- Angular rotation in one plane
- Eliminates pressure thrust forces
- Transmits external loads
- Prevents torsion on bellows
- No main anchors required
- Minimum guiding required
- Low forces on piping system
60 dia. Double Hinged Refractory Lined Expansion Joint for a Chemical Refinery in Michigan
U.S. Bellows, Inc. specially designed and manufactured a double hinged refractory lined expansion joint for a chemical refinery in Michigan. This expansion joint with an overall length of 40′-0″ has a 4″ thick refractory lining installed per UOP specifications. It also consists of testable two plies SB-443/Inco 625LCF bellows, 5/8″ thick, A516-70 mitered elbows, 5/8″ thick, A516-70 spool, A240-304 liners, A516-70 hinges, A193, GR 7 tie rods, and A516-70 lugs.
This expansion joint is designed for 50 PSIG and 1440°F with 3″ of lateral movement per B31.3 and EJMA standards. To ensure quality, 100% X-Ray and 100% dye-penetration tests were performed on the bellows after forming. A pneumatic test at 75 PSIG was conducted on the expansion joint assembly prior to shipping.
Replacement Hinged Expansion Joint
The 24” diameter hinged expansion joint shown above was designed to absorb lateral deflection and limited angular rotation in one plane only. They were supplied by U.S. Bellows, Inc. for an emergency shut down delivery requirement.