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Categories - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Category Articles
What is an RFSO flange?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
An RFSO flange is a raised face slip on flange. Single Metallic Expansion Joints with RFSO Flanges Read More
How does an expansion bellows function?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
A bellows functions by compressing or extending according to the axial motion that is required in the piping system. Please see video below of a metallic bellows being cycle tested to verify how many cycles a bellows can withstand before failing.... Read More
What is lateral deflection?
Added on Wed, Jun 29, 2011
Lateral deflection is movement perpendicular to the axial plane of the expansion joint. It is a shear motion on the bellows. Lateral Deflection Read More
What are convolutions on bellows for expansion joints?
Added on Mon, Feb 7, 2011
Convolutions are the smallest flexible unit of a bellows. The total movement capacity of a bellows is proportional to the number of convolutions. 108" Diameter Thick Wall Expansion Joint with 2 Convolutions Read More
What is angular deflection?
Added on Wed, Feb 9, 2011
When an expansion joint experiences bending about its center, which is on the centerline and halfway between the ends of the bellows, this deflection is referred to as angular. It can occur in any plane that passes through the centerline, but the... Read More
How do define a hydro-test pressure based on design pressure?
Added on Wed, Aug 14, 2013
Hydro-test pressure & holding times vary for different design codes. For example, the ASME SEC VIII Div.1 general hydro-test pressure will be 1.3 x design pressure (minor factors may vary for this equation as well) and for piping design codes,... Read More
What is expansion joint o.a.l?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
O.A.L refers to the overall length of the expansion joint. 286" O.A.L. Expansion Joint Read More
What is the function of an expansion joint in a compressor?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
An expansion joint is typically installed in compressor inlet or outlet piping to reduce the forces and moments on the compressor nozzles. Read More
How do I insulate large piping expansion joints?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
An external cover can be provided as an accessory to expansion joints so that insulation can then be placed over the expansion joint unit. Expansion Joint External Cover Read More
How do you adjust pipe expansion joint tie rods?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
Tie rods on expansion joints are factory set in the manufacture process and should not be adjusted in the field. 76" Diameter Single Expansion Joint with Tie Rods Read More
What is free length in an expansion joint bellows?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
Free length is the neutral length of the expansion joint bellows. This is the length of the bellows that has neither been compressed nor extended. Read More
What are the guidelines on how to locate anchors and expansion joints in chilled water risers?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
The anchors are located at the lower floor and upper floor of chilled water risers and guides should be located on alternating floors. The expansion joints should then be located near the main anchors. Read More
How do I change a steam expansion joint?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
The expansion joint can be replaced by an expansion joint of a similar design in the cold condition (when the plant is shut down). Shipping brackets should be placed on the expansion joint before un-flanging or cutting the expansion joint from the... Read More
How would I determine the equivalent length of an expansion joint within a piping system?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
We have standard lengths that are listed in our catalog, however, we can make our expansion joints longer or shorter than what our catalog states. We also can furnish piping assemblies with pipe and fitting as may be required. 30 Feet Long... Read More
What is the purpose of the hinged expansion joint on a duct expansion loop?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
Hinged expansion joints are used in conjunction with piping loops in order to absorb large amounts of thermal expansion. Double Hinged Refractory Lined Expansion Joint Read More
What is 300 psig?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
This is an expansion joint specification meaning the expansion joint is rated for 300 pounds per square inch of pressure. Expansion Joints were Dye-Penetrant Tested and Hyrdo-Tested at 300 PSIG Read More
What is the flow direction of an expansion joint?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
Flow direction of an expansion joint refers to the direction by which the material within the pipe is moving. Fabric Expansion Joint Design with Flow Direction Indicated Read More
What is the difference between tie rod and limit rod?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
The function of tie rods on an expansion joint is to continuously restrain the full pressure thrust during normal operation while permitting only lateral deflection. Limit rods are used to limit axial expansion or compression. Limit rods are designed... Read More
How do you anchor and guide an expansion joint on elevated pipe?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
The anchoring and guiding of any expansion joint system would be per EJMA standards. Elevated piping systems will usually use some type of tied expansion joint to eliminate main anchors. Single Expansion Joints With Tie Rods Read More
How do you install an expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Feb 7, 2011
The necessary steps for installing all expansion joints shall be pre-planned. The installers shall be made aware of these steps as well as the installation instructions furnished by the manufacturer. The most critical phases of the expansion joint... Read More
What is an expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Feb 7, 2011
An expansion joint is an assembly used in a pipe line to allow it to expand and contract as climate conditions move from hot to cold and helps to ensure that the system remains functional. 76″ dia. Single Tied Expansion Joint for a Hot Blast... Read More
How does an expansion joint operate in a furnace?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
Expansion joints are not installed inside furnaces due to the extremely high temperatures of the environment and the piping system. Expansion joints will typically be found in the piping coming in and out of the furnace. Read More
How do you decide the number of convolutions for a bellows?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
The number of convolutions is based upon EJMA design formulas for bellows. Read More
Why should I use a double offset expansion joint?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
A double offset expansion joint can be used to absorb large amounts of lateral motion with a minimum amount of deflection forces. A Double Offset Expansion Joint with Limit Rods Read More
How do you connect duct pipe with expansion joints?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
Connecting duct pipe with expansion joints can be accomplished by using angle iron flanges, weld bands or butt welding. Read More
What are intermediate anchors used for in the expansion joint system?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
An intermediate anchor is a stop in the piping system that divides the movement between expansion joints. Read More
Do you provide lifting lugs and/or lift points to be used during field installation?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Yes we do provide lifting lugs. Whether or not we provide them depends upon the size and weight of the unit. 44" Hinged Expansion Joints with Refractory Lining Read More
Where is the insulation pillow located within the expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
There are a variety of places for the insulation pillow to be placed within the expansion joint. It can be inside the unit or we can fabricate the expansion joint over sized and we can fill the extra space with the insulation pillow for... Read More
How do you order an expansion joint?
Added on Tue, Feb 8, 2011
As a minimum the following information should be provided when ordering an expansion joint: Size of the line. Design pressure. ... Read More
How common is it to use steel expansion joint in and out of centrifugal pump?
Added on Tue, Oct 16, 2012
We get inquiries for steel and rubber expansion joints for pump suction and discharge. Rubber Expansion Joints Read More
Why do bellows have corrugations?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
Bellows have corrugations (convolutions) in order to be able to absorb the thermal movement of the piping. Read More
Where do I install expansion joints in a piping system?
Added on Sat, Apr 16, 2011
The location of expansion joints in a piping system depends on the design conditions and the piping system configuration. All cases must be evaluated individually. Expansion Joint in the Field Read More
What is bellows I.D.?
Added on Tue, Feb 8, 2011
Bellows I.D. refers to the inside diameter of the bellows. Neoprene Fabric Expansion Joint is 42" I.D. by 7-3/4" Face-to-Face Read More
If a simple bellows is designed without limit rods (for operating cases), under a hydro test, do you recommend adding limit rods?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
Yes, if they are testing just the expansion joint or if they are testing when installed, they have to make sure that the pipe line is anchored or have limit rods added to the expansion joint to absorb the pressure thrust. Single Metallic... Read More
How do you remove an expansion joint from a pipeline?
Added on Thu, Feb 10, 2011
In order to remove an expansion joint from a pipeline you must first shut off the fluid or gas flowing through the piping system. Then you must install braces across the bellows so that the expansion joint does not move. The expansion joint can then... Read More
What’s the thickness limitation of a single layer expansion joint?
Added on Sat, Dec 10, 2011
The thickness limitation of an expansion joint depends on the bellows diameter and the maximum thickness that we can make is usually about .120 inches thick in the largest sizes. Read More
How do you seal high temperature furnaces?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
We recommend the use of furnace bags to seal high temperature tubes that penetrate the furnace floor.   Furnace Bag Used to Seal High Temperature Tubes Read More
What are the three basic movements within a joint?
Added on Wed, Jun 29, 2011
The three basic movements within an expansion joint are axial, lateral, or angular rotation. All three of these movements do not generally occur at the same time. Axial Deflection Lateral Deflection Angular Deflection Read More
Can double gimbal expansion joints be self-stable if applied horizontally?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
Yes, the gimbal hardware of a gimbal expansion joint can be designed to support the weight of adjacent piping. 72″ Double Gimbal and Single Hinged Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joints Read More
What is an expansion piping loop?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
An expansion piping loop is a method to absorb the thermal growth in a piping system without the use of expansion joints.  Piping System with Expansion Joints Read More
On a lateral tied expansion joint, is there space allowed in between the nut and the retainer to functionally avoid tilt of the tie-rod when at the operating temperature?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
We do not put slots on our expansion joints, but we leave a minimum gap between the nuts and the lug depending on the lateral movement. Tied Universal Expansion Joints Designed for a Power Generation Plant in Texas Read More
For an inline pressure balanced expansion joint, overall speaking, is it equivalent to a simple expansion joint without thrust force?
Added on Fri, Oct 19, 2012
No, it is the total of the spring rates of all three bellows. 36" Pressure Balanced Elbow Pipe Expansion Joint Read More
What is the bellows of an expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Feb 7, 2011
A bellows is the flexible element of an expansion joint consisting of one or more convolutions and the end tangents, if any. Stock Metallic Bellows Read More
How much tension is needed to prevent a pipe from buckling?
Added on Wed, Jun 29, 2011
Buckling typically occurs while the pipe in compression mode and is not normally related to the tension mode of the pipe. Read More
What does cold preset 2.5" mean?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Cold preset of 2.5" is performed in the shop on one side of the center line so that in operation the expansion joint will return to the neutral position. Read More
What causes expansion?
Added on Wed, Jun 29, 2011
Expansion is caused by heat being applied to a piping system. Expansion Joints in a Piping System Read More
What is the service life of expansion bellows before it needs to be serviced in steam application?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
There is not a particular time period of service life, but it depends on the environmental condition of the expansion joints. Maintenance is not required on expansion joints. Bellows with Linear Crack in the Root of Convolution Read More
How long is an expansion joint cycle?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
The expansion joint cycle is a design condition - stated by the customer or a number we provide according to the design of the expansion joint which refers to the expansion joint moving from the neutral position to compression and back to... Read More
How does one determine the design life of a particular bellow as opposed to cycle life?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Design life is fatigue life which is also the cycle life. They are all the same thing. Fatigue Test Read More
In what situations would you pre-compress piping expansion joints?
Added on Wed, Jul 6, 2011
Expansion joints should be pre-compressed for low-temperature/cryogenic applications because when the pipe gets cold it will contract. Read More
What’s the highest cycle # you can handle?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Fatigue life of any unit has to be calculated. The number of cycles varies according to the design conditions of the expansion joints. Fatigue Test Read More
When are center supports required on expansion joints?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Use a center spool support to support the weight of the spool between the bellows and to stabilize the center spool during operation. Read More
Do hinged and gimbal expansion joints serve the same purpose?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
Hinged expansion joints take angular rotation in only one place. Gimbal expansion joints take angular rotation in two planes. Hinged Expansion Joint Double Gimbal Universal Expansion Joint Read More
Does fatigue failure of an expansion joint include the natural vibration of the structure and the natural frequency of the piping system during operation?
Added on Sat, Dec 10, 2011
We do not include the vibration calculations in the normal design calculations, however, if you provide the natural frequency of the vibration, we can consider it. Read More
How do you do the fatigue analysis of the bellows in high temperature application?
Added on Fri, Oct 19, 2012
We perform EJMA calculations.   Fatigue Testing (also known as Cycle Testing) Read More
Can a double gimble expansion joint be used both vertically and horizontally without any extra piping support?
Added on Tue, Oct 16, 2012
The weight of the units is self-supporting but the additional weight of the piping, elbows etc. in the field will not be supported by the expansion joint. Gimbal pipe expansion joint Read More
How do you attach a copper tube with a bellows?
Added on Wed, Jun 29, 2011
A copper tube can be attached by brazing or soldering the tube to the bellows. Read More
What’s the difference between a single and multi-layer bellows?
Added on Sat, Dec 10, 2011
If you use a two-ply bellows, each ply can be designed for the full temperature and pressure conditions so that if the inside ply were to fail, you would still have the outside ply to carry the design pressure and temperatures. Hinged Expansion... Read More
Are you carrying out finite element analysis for designing the bellows?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Yes we are able to perform finite element analysis for bellows design. Normal bellows design is based on EJMA equations. Finite Element Analysis Read More
Can expansion joints be repaired in the field?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
We can send technicians to the field for certain repairs, however, it depends on the extent of the repair. Cracked Bellows in a Piping System Read More
What is the difference of the expansion joint at the elbow, one with expansion joint at the outside of elbow and the other without it?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
The bellows outside the elbow is called the balancing bellows. This bellows compensates for the movements. The elbow acts as an intermediate anchor and the tie rods absorb all of the pressured thrust forces. Tied Universal Expansion Joint with... Read More
What anti-corrosion coatings are used on expansion joints?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
We generally use universal primer for expansion joints, unless the customer specifies a specific paint. 63" In-line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint with a Custom Paint Job Read More
Is 304 Stainless safe for applications installed near the ocean where the metal may be more susceptible to corrosion or would you recommend another material?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
Yes, it is safe to use 304 Stainless Steel, but high alloy materials such as Inconel® and Monel® are better options for a salt water atmosphere. Double Gimbal and Single Hinged Flanged and Flued Head Expansion Joints fabricated from 304 H... Read More
Does air between multilayer expansion joints reduce the pressure rating from single thickness?
Added on Sat, Dec 10, 2011
There will be reduction of the pressure capacity of the bellows. Read More
How close should the expansion joint be set to the anchor?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
The expansion joint should be located as close as possible to the main anchor. The first guide should be 4 pipe diameters from the expansion joint. The second guide should be 14 pipe diameters from the first guide. Read More
Are toroidals commonly used as heat exchangers?
Added on Tue, Oct 16, 2012
Toroidals can be used but not often. Most exchange use normal thin-wall expansion joints or thick-wall expansion joints fabricated from flanged and flued heads.   72" inch thick wall pipe expansion joint. Read More
What are the travel limits for the tie rods?
Added on Sat, Dec 10, 2011
The limiting factors correspond to the limiting factors of the bellows design in accordance with the specifications of each expansion joint. 12" Universal Expansion Joint with Tie Rods Read More
What is an FCC unit?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
An FCC unit is a fluid catalytic cracking unit, which is a type of process that is used in refining crude oil into gasoline. The expansion joints used for the service are called stand pipe expansion joints. Pipe Expansion Joint Read More
With regards to materials, how do you certify the materials?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
We obtain the MTR's and additionally we perform positive material identification tests in house and if a customer requires additional the additional chemical and physical properties, we can obtain that as well. Read More
Is the branch of a balanced Tee in the normal process flow path? Or is it sealed off?
Added on Thu, Nov 3, 2011
The branch of a balanced Tee is in the flow path. Read More
Would you recommend expansion joints become filled with Kao when the expansion joint is utilized in high-temp applications (e.g. reactor overhead lines)?
Added on Sat, Dec 10, 2011
Yes, we would recommend that the expansion joint is filled with Kao, but it would require a special design or over-sized bellows. Kao Insulation Material Read More
Do you normally recommend tie-rods for a single expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
Not normally, it all depends on the service condition or application of the expansion joint. 12" Single Expansion Joints with Tie Rods Read More
Do intermediate anchors have to be a full anchors on an expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
No, intermediate anchors are typically used to divide the pipeline into sections and therefore multiple expansion joints can be used to divide up the thermal expansion. Read More
Does US Bellows, Inc. have any unique design for pressure thrust balancing an in-line slip joint for long stretch of large-bore pipes? We have this particular issue of having really large anchor forces on both sides of the slip joint.
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Slip joints transfer pressure thrust & spring forces into system unlike pressure balanced units. Slip Type Expansion Joint Drawing Read More
Is seamless tube available instead of a butt welded tube for metallic expansion joints?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
It depends upon the diameter of the expansion joints. Generally for the smaller expansion joints, seamless is available. Read More
Do externally pressurized bellows need anchors for thrust load?
Added on Fri, Oct 19, 2012
Yes, an externally pressurized expansion joint requires that the piping system be anchored. Externally Pressurized Expansion Joints Read More
Is it okay to put guides on only one side of the expansion joint?
Added on Mon, Jun 18, 2012
It depends upon the pipeline design. For example, if there is a long run of pipe on both sides, then we need guides on both sides. If the expansion joint is located close to an anchor, then guides are only required on the long side. Read More
What is the leak "rate" acceptance criterion for the bolt to fabric connection?
Added on Tue, Oct 16, 2012
There is not an acceptance criterion for bolt to fabric connection. Read More
How do the bellows flex when you have a solid rod connecting each end together?
Added on Fri, Oct 19, 2012
The flow end bellows will compress and the balancing bellows will extend because they are connected by the rods. Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint Read More
Can duct work include expansion joints?
Added on Tue, Aug 13, 2013
Duct work assemblies can include fabricated elbows, tees, straight sections of duct work, fabric or metallic expansion joints and can be rectangular or round. Duct work and expansion joint assembly. Read More
Are there expansion joints for seismic joints?
Added on Fri, May 9, 2014
Yes there are and US Bellows, Inc. can design and manufacture these.  16 Foot Square Rectangular Expansion Joint With Stainless Steel Bellows Read More
The axial load is transferred through expansion joint itself and the limit rod is for safety? Is my understanding is correct?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Yes, the limit rod will prevent damage of expansion joint in case of anchor failure in the line. Also, the rod will prevent damage to the expansion joint by distributing the movements evenly between the bellows. Limit Rods Read More
What type of media can pass through a transition piece?
Added on Tue, Aug 13, 2013
Media that can pass through a transition piece includes air, liquid, gasses, dust, dirt and chemicals. Transition Piece Read More
What is flow rate?
Added on Wed, Aug 14, 2013
The flow rate is the amount of liquid passing through a particular area over a period of time. It is generally measured in gallons per a minute or cubic feet per meter. Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint Read More
What other name is the toroidal pipe expansion joint known as?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
This expansion joint is also known as an Omega bellows pipe expansion joint for it resembles the Greek letter Omega. Toroidal Pipe Expansion Joint Read More
Do you include or recommend adding construction tolerances to the calculated thermal movements the expansion joints are supposed to accommodate?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
No, expansion joints are good for thermal or operating movements only. They should not be used for any misalignments or to close any gap while installing.  Lateral, Angular and Combined Movements Read More
How are the telescoping liner and liner seal installed?
Added on Fri, May 9, 2014
They are installed before the fabric belt installation. Telescoping liners are welded on each side of the expansion joint, either on inner diameter base of flange or inner diameter of pipe. Liner seal is held by clips that are also welded on the... Read More
What limits the U-shaped design application?
Added on Fri, May 9, 2014
Design condition of bellow prescribes physical dimension and shape of convolution. It also depends on a combination of size, temperature and pressure. The image of the rounded corner below is an example of an U-shaped design. 71"x143"... Read More
Are hinged pipe expansion joints provided with pin holes?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Some hinge types can be provided with hinge pin holes which are slotted to permit limited axial travel. These slotted hinge types will not resist pressure thrust forces, and anchoring must be provided. 30" Inch Double Hinged Expansion Joint... Read More
For field installation work do you have tools to punch holes in the expansion joint? Is it a mechanical or hydraulic punch?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Holes should never be punch on or in expansion joints. Field Installation of Replacement Expansion Joint Read More
Is it okay to punch a hole into an expansion joint?
Added on Fri, May 9, 2014
You should never punch a hole into an expansion joint.  Read More
Which forming method is better of more quality?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
We punch form our bellows. This is an industry accepted forming method. US Bellows, Inc. Forming Method Read More
What type of material is normally used in the accumulation barrier?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Kaowool is used. It is a ceramic thermal blanket. Fire Blanket / Kaowool Read More
What type of EJ do I use so that I don’t need to design for the pressure thrust force?
Added on Fri, May 9, 2014
Pressure balance type. The major advantage of a pressure balanced joint is its ability to absorb axial movement without imposing additional pressure thrust into the piping system.    Read More
What is the smallest inner diameter you can fabricate?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
1" nom diameter. Stock Bellows in Inventory Read More
Can you explain how carbon steel does not have sufficient elasticity?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Compared to stainless steel, carbon steel has modulus of elasticity at a higher temperature. Metallic Expansion Joint with Carbon Steel Flanges Read More
For a fabric expansion joint, what does the joint frame take the place of?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
The joint frame takes the place of the stiffner flange. Expansion joint designed to allow the ducting to serve as a flow liner Read More
Are there special considerations for bellows material that do not have a fatigue endurance limit such as titanium?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
We do not make bellows out of titanium but every material has their fatigue cycle. Titanium has higher stress allow-ables at temperatures but it does not mean they have infinite cycle life. Stock Bellows Read More
How are the seals retained?
Added on Fri, May 9, 2014
Seals are retained with clips and welded to the inside diameter of the liner. Assembly Of Clips On Expansion Joint Read More
What are wipers on slip type pipe expansion joints?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
On slip type pipe expansion joints special features such as wipers can be included to prevent clogging of the space provided for slip movement. Part of a Slip Type Expansion Joint Read More
Is there a pressure limit to start to use a wall thick EJ?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
US Bellows, Inc. designs bellows for condition requirements. 72" Inch Thick Wall Pipe Expansion Joint Read More
What happens if a fabric expansion joint is exposed to sudden pressure fluctuations, such being located near ID fans and dampers?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
This may result in the belt fluttering. The fabric will fatigue over time resulting in tears. Using stiffer fabric materal, installing a liner and increasing the standoff are steps to take avoid flutter. Fabric Expansion Joint Belt Read More
Is an In-line pressure balanced pipe expansion joint more expensive than the similar type of expansion joints?
Added on Thu, May 15, 2014
Yes, this expansion joint is obviously more expensive than the similar types, however they may result in a lower overall system cost when the elimination of main anchoring is considered. Inline Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint Read More
 
 
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